OLD TRADITIONS, MODERN TECHNOLOGY
According to residents of wooden houses, even cut down the tree continues to emit heat energy, creating a comfortable indoor atmosphere of unity with nature. Wood really emphasizes eco-friendliness of buildings. They are filled with unique flavor, and the combination of old tradition and modern technology allows to implement a wide variety of exciting design ideas. Many owners of such buildings in an effort to preserve the overall style of the house and gain a sense of comfort decorate the interior and wooden elements.
Wood is the best option. Of course, modern construction of wood differs substantially from the old building frames as the number of variants of this construction and the available technology. Only one component remain unchanged - the design of solid natural wood. Through the use of new high-tech equipment that provides accuracy of processing of wood, modern wooden buildings acquired many qualities that distinguish them favorably against the stone and brick buildings. In addition to generally accepted environmental friendliness, wood is also characterized by adequate strength, low thermal conductivity (walls can be built three times thinner than a brick), frost resistance, high sound insulation, easy handling, low weight of construction and exquisite color, pattern and the above-mentioned flavor. Wood also possesses necessary ventilation properties that promote natural circulation of air in the room. Through deck or girder indoors can vary up to 30% of air. It is also important that you can build from wood any time of year, even in winter. In general, for the construction of wooden residential houses both coniferous and deciduous trees are used: pine, spruce, oak, larch, cedar and others. The most valued is wood from the northern regions where the tree grows only during the short summer period, slowly, reaching the age of 100-150 years. This wood is dense and strong, has a reddish hue and extraordinary silkiness (thanks to its natural resin, which also prevents rotting wood and makes it more thermo-and cold-resistant). Wood duly is provided for processing, that provides a wide range of wooden building materials. By the way, the technology of their production saves energy. For the construction of modern walls of wooden houses several types of structural systems are used: log hut, frame, panel, shield, skeleton-shield, system drop-log.
Construction of wooden frame manually is the oldest method of construction of wood. It requires the most time and money. The tree trunk purified from the bark serves as a building material, which have more or less cylindrical shape, grooves and elements of locks to connect with other logs. The walls of the building are constructed of horizontally installed logs. Seals against penetration of wind are put between them (moss, tow etc.). Production and installation of home are carried out in place by team of skilled professionals. Today, logs are processed manually not only by using axes, but electrical and other hand tools. Logs for walls usually have a diameter of 24 to 40 cm. For the first row larger diameter logs are selected. Rows are interconnected into a groove, which is selected on the bottom of each timber. Width of groove is ranging from 13 to 15 cm, depending on climatic conditions. The form of the groove is a semicircle. The walls of the building are constructed mostly of fresh cut trees. Wood drying occurs directly in wooden frame. During the drying cracks in the deck are formed. To prevent or at least minimize their appearance, along the entire log perform the cut depth to the center. During the construction shrinkage of walls must be taken into account. Walls mostly dry up during the first season, therefore handmade frame should stand at least a year before making cladding works. Then perform additional sealing of cracks, paneling door and window boxes.
HOUSES MADE OF LOGS
Modern technology allows building a log hut with impeccably round logs. In this case complexity during installation and labor-intensive processing are transferred to production. In contrast not blank but ready details are delivered to the construction site. In the factory deck is dried in special chambers. Then it passes cylindering process, after which has a standard diameter along the entire length. To reduce cracking of facial surfaces on deck incisions are performed that then are painted over with waterproofing means. Deck must be fully treated with antiseptics. Modern woodworking equipment allows to produce very large diameter logs (even more than 30 cm), which is not inferior logs, prepared manually. Compared with the timber blocking, the value of homes made of logs can be considered moderate. The service life of such buildings is about 80 years. The production of round logs uses freshly cut trees. In the process of machining to make the deck equal cylindrical remove wetter and not too dense layer of wood that is most vulnerable to rot and penetration of fungal microorganisms. Ready deck has a "cup" or "half cup" for the connection logs together, compensatory incision for the reduction of longitudinal cracks, "bed" for laying logs on each other. The presence of sample in the beam (item "bed") directs the output water from the center of deck by the shortest route. The use of "half cups" can grow logs to any length, according to the project. After cylindering and cutting "cups" deck passes a comprehensive fire and antiseptic treatment, and is marked up to be sent to the object assembly. It has long been recommended to use for the construction of houses wood of winter cut when moisture content is the smallest. This minimizes the number and size of cracks formed during drying. The higher the moisture content of logs and higher drying temperature (environmental), the larger are cracks. Be aware that fresh cut log is processed with its humidity 65-80% and 1.5-2 years of natural wood drying this moisture is reduced to 15-20%.
HOUSES MADE OF GIRDER
Today one of the most common types of wooden buildings is house of girder. The design of that house is similar to timber blocking or building of logs. Unconditional advantage of houses made of girder is smooth walls outside and inside of buildings. Girder profile can accurately fit all the details. Therefore houses of it are quick to build, have elegant and respectable appearance, and do not need additional inner lining. Even under adverse weather conditions girder house can last over 100 years due to its ability to withstand almost unlimited number of cycles of freezing-thawing. Girder can be sawn, planed and glued. Sawn girder at the factory is subjected to minimal processing. From round logs of natural humidity level (50-70%) on sawmill cut out a rectangular timber of different sections, such as 100x100, 100x150, 150x150, 150h200, 200x200 mm, and various profile shapes. In this form girder enters the construction site. The main disadvantages of the walls of sawn girder are cracking during drying and significant shrinkage for the first six months after the construction of the house. Planed girder has the same dimensions as sawn, but it is dried at the factory to a moisture content of 20-25% and then cut out on special equipment. Shrinkage of walls with planed timber is small, and the surface can be painted with enamels and lacquers. So as insufficient drying of timber have resulted in shrinkage of house, in the girder also perform internal horizontal incision. At the same time girder outside is smooth and covered with cracks. When mounting thanks to presence of incisions is formed air cavity, the so-called pocket. Since air is an effective insulator, the walls of profiled girder retain heat more than a half times better than conventional smooth walls with timber. For protection and insulation of home are used mineral wool, for cladding the exterior walls - wall paneling, siding or other materials. In order to increase the density of connections in horizontal seams put the felt, linen, jute fiber, synthetic tape or a special sealant. Glued girder is a building material of new generation, the use of which eliminates the disadvantages associated with the use of traditional holistic girder. The more obvious advantages of glued girder the larger diameter it has. Girder is glued in special presses with two, three or more elements (slats) so that the strongest layer of logs (core) was outside of the finished product. When gluing slats, direction of the wood fibers in them is given in opposite sides to prevent warping girder with changes in humidity. Through the use of high quality glues harmful substances do not get into indoor air. In glued girder significantly fewer cracks is formed than in the cut. Proper drying of workpieces prevents walls shrinkage of the house. From glued girder also produce corrugated board, which has a trapezoidal ridge top and the grooves of the same configuration on the bottom. Ridges and grooves rigidly connect girder that is on top, with the bottom one. No shrinkage allows immediately after installation install window boxes and doors. The main advantages of glued profiled beam are larger strength, compared to conventional wood, lower thermal conductivity, absence of cracks and stable geometric dimensions. Due to grooves and ridges along the beam additional seals are not required. Walls from glued profiled beam have high quality surfaces. The use of glued profiled beam allows significantly reduce the construction period and reduce the cost.
If in construction of frame exterior and interior walls are load-bearing, the main structural element is a frame that needs filling. Framework structures are more economical compared to frame; faster constructed, have considerable strength with minimal material consumption and allows you to make changes in facilities planning, even during construction. Frame buildings of all types mentioned earlier are the cheapest. In particular, they are 15-20% cheaper than houses made of cylinder logs. Frame buildings are warm enough, but in terms of environmental performance they are inferior to houses of logs and girder through the use of synthetic materials in walls lining that prevent proper air circulation and moisture. Modern frame construction can be divided into two groups. The first type includes framing system on the platform, in which the starting point is the construction of the floor, which serves to establish a vertical surface elements and rack-beam frame system which is a combination of pillars and beams, i.e. the framework for all design. By increasing the length of the vertical poles wooden houses under construction for wireframe principle can be two-or even three-storey. Frame system requires two-sided coating: outside - wind and water resistant materials, inside - wood or plasterboard. Between these two layers insulation is invested. The second type of frame construction is a combination frame with shield. Finished shield is sheathed on both sides with the boards or waterproof plywood, and put inside heat and sound insulation material. Using shield elements greatly accelerates the process of construction of buildings. The walls of the house need plastering, cladding textured planks, siding or brick. Frame homes have several important advantages. In particular, boxes of these buildings are constructed merely two weeks (the rest is facing of the house). By insulating properties of a frame house wall thickness of 150 mm corresponds brick wall thickness of 600 mm. Thermal characteristics of the building are stable at any time of the year. For example, at heavy frost this house stays warm for a long time, because when power cut heating the room temperature is reduced by about 2 ° C per day. In hot weather this house is cool and comfortable. During the construction of frame houses there are no problems with shrinkage of walls.
Supporting-girder houses or as they are called, homes built on technology drop-log, combine the advantages of frame buildings and houses from glued profiled beam. Technology components of such construction are the construction of the carrier frame construction, lining exterior walls with dry corrugated board, laying insulation and covering the inner surface of the of the walls with facing panels of wood or drywall. In such houses virtually no shrinkage of walls, however, safety of bearing structure is high enough. The surfaces of the walls do not require additional lining and due to the high degree of dryness profiled beam do not change its shape.
MARKET TODAY AND ITS PROSPECTS
For several years in the domestic market of wooden building there is a rapid rise. According to expert estimates, the estimated market volume in 2007 reached $ 160 million or 250 thousand square meters. The growth rates of the market exceed 50% per year. Sales of wooden houses almost doubled in the last two years. More than half of Ukrainian market now belongs to log cabins and homes with cylindrical girder. The rest of the play shaped timber, glued beam and frame-panel designs. However, according to forecasts of specialists over the next five years, this ratio is undergoing significant changes and the market is almost evenly distribute lumber buildings, houses from glued beams and frame-mounted design. Today domestic woodworking suppliers cover about 70% of the market, and the rest is up to producers from abroad. And if a few years ago among imported products dominated products companies from Scandinavian countries, now share of wooden houses from Russian companies that have access to cheap and high quality raw materials is rapidly increasing. Of course, this factor allows them to reduce the production cost of the structural elements of wooden structures and is a significant competitive advantage in the market.
Thus, one could argue that with the beginning of the new millennium Ukrainian construction market of wood joined in an active phase of its development and has good prospects, especially as reserves for future growth is far from exhausted. In this regard, it is appropriate to note that reducing cost and improving the quality allow the widest possible application for the construction of wooden houses of hollow beam construction with dimensional thin low commodity wood.
Involvement in processing of wood, which in total the country's sawmill fund is not less than 30%, is the most important and currently almost not used reserve of wood raw material for the production of various products, including building materials. Output of dimensional timber with thin materials (diameter 8-14 cm) is approximately 50%. Manufacture of hollow timber allows effectively use a variety of low commodity wood. Expediency of manufacturing technology of hollow beams has been confirmed in practice. Thus, the Ukrainian market of wooden building has the necessary capacity to continue the rapid growth both in natural and in cash reflection. Generally speaking this is regularity and requirement of time, as in many developed European countries the proportion of wooden buildings is about half of all private dwellings (in some Scandinavian countries reaches even 95%). In northern U.S. and Canada up to 70% of homes are built entirely of wood or on the basis of frame-shield technology. In Ukraine, an increasing focus on national energy security and the desire to improve the environmental standards of living also encourage to pay more and more attention to the wooden construction as one of the best solutions to environmental and energy problems.